The wastewater treatment plant, using the constructed wetlands method, was set up at Kibbutz Harduf in 2006. The plant was constructed at this site for a number of reasons, which arose together:

  • The pressure on the wastewater conduction system to the Haifa wastewater treatment plant and the long pipelines leading from Harduf to the community of Adi, and from there to Shfaram, A’abelin, and on to the wastewater treatment plant in Haifa. This pressure resulted in an overflow of wastewater from these pipelines. Reducing the wastewater load led to a reduction in environmental damage and delayed the date for replacing the systems’ replacement.
  • The desire of Kibbutz Harduf for an ecological solution for treating its own wastewater and utilizing the treated effluent for agriculture close to the point of formation.
  • The practical demonstration of the “constructed wetlands” system as a sustainable solution for treating wastewater. The treatment process at the facility, designed by the German engineer Owe-Burka, includes 3 green basins operating in sequence.
  • The wastewater entering the plant is domestic wastewater, with some agricultural and industrial components.
  • The effluent that has been treated in the constructed wetlands facility is of a very high treatment quality that meets the regulatory requirements in terms of: BOD, TSS (suspended solids), nitrogen and phosphorus.
  • Content data:

Entry throughput: 200 m3 per day
Organic load: 103
Number of residents and activities: 1,360 and dairy farm sewage after pretreatment

  • The wastewater treatment plant receives dairy farm sewage after pretreatment in a plant using the same technology.

The methods in use at the Harduf wastewater treatment plant include the following stages:

  1. A decomposition chamber to block coarse solids at the Kibbutz Harduf point of origin.
  2. The first reed basin in the series – a vertical flow basin.
  3. The second reed basin in the series – a vertical flow basin.
  4. Oxidization and polishing channel for the effluent.
  5. Collection basin.
  6. Utilization of the treated effluent for irrigation.

Effluent throughput in the facility – 200 m3.

Results from the Harduf reed facility:

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DateSampling siteColi F.7-8/4/2010Stage 2 point of origin79,000 Reservoir33012-13/4/2010Stage 2 point of origin2,400,000 Reservoir24,00022-23/4/201Stage 2 point of origin2,400,000 Reservoir24,0003-4/5/2010Stage 2 point of origin170,000 Reservoir


In light of the successful treatment of the wastewater at Harduf using the constructed wetlands system, Palgey Maim planned a pre-treatment system for the Harduf dairy using the same system. The system was set up in 2010, adjacent to the dairy, and it is working successfully.

Project Details
Kibbutz Harduf
wastewater treatment
flow 200 M3/day the system includes 3 green ponds in a row. The effluent is reused for irrigation.
Client Name
Kibbutz Harduf
Main Figures
WL wet land for sanitary wastewater treatment
1.2 Million NIS

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